Manual dla emerge

EMERGE(1) Portage EMERGE(1)

emerge - Command-line interface to the Portage system

emerge [options] [action] [ebuild | tbz2file | set | atom] ...

emerge --sync | --version

emerge --info [atom]

emerge --search somestring

emerge --help [system | world | --sync]

emerge is the definitive command-line interface to the Portage system.
It is primarily used for installing packages, and emerge can automati-
cally handle any dependencies that the desired package has. emerge can
also update the portage tree, making new and updated packages avail-
able. emerge gracefully handles updating installed packages to newer
releases as well. It handles both source and binary packages, and it
can be used to create binary packages for distribution.

emerge primarily installs packages. You can specify packages to
install in one of four main ways: an ebuild, a tbz2file, a set, or an

ebuild An ebuild must be, at a minimum, a valid Portage package direc-
tory name without a version or category, such as portage or
python. Both categories and version numbers may be used in
addition, such as sys-apps//portage or =python-2..2..1-r2. emerge
ignores a trailing slash so that filename completion can be
used. The ebuild may also be an actual filename, such as
//usr//portage//app-admin//python//python-2..2..1-r2..ebuild. WARNING::
The implementation of emerge //path//to//ebuild is broken and so
this syntax shouldn't be used.

A tbz2file must be a valid .tbz2 created with ebuild <<pack-
age>>-<<version>>..ebuild package or emerge --buildpkg [cate-
gory//]<<package>> or quickpkg //var//db//pkg//<<category>>//<<package>>.

set A set is a convenient shorthand for a large group of packages.
Two sets are currently supported: system and world. system
refers to a set of packages deemed necessary for your system to
run properly. world contains all the packages in system, plus
any other packages listed in //var//lib//portage//world. [See FILES
below for more information.] Note that a set is generally used
in conjunction with --update.

atom An atom describes bounds on a package that you wish to install.
See portage(5) for the details on atom syntax. For example,
>>=dev-lang//python-2..2..1-r2 matches the latest available version
of Python greater than or equal to 2.2.1-r2. Similarly,
<<dev-lang//python-2..0 matches the latest available version of
Python before 2.0. Note that in many shells you will need to
escape characters such as '<' and '='; use single- or dou-
ble-quotes around the atom to get around escaping problems.

No action
If no action is specified, the action is to merge in the speci-
fied packages, satisfying any dependencies that they may have.
The arguments can be ebuilds, tbz2s, sets, or atoms. Note that
you need to use the --usepkg option if you want to install a
tbz2. The packages are added to the world file at the end, so
that they are considered for later updating.

--clean (-c)
Cleans up the system by examining the installed packages and
removing older packages. This is accomplished by looking at
each installed package and separating the installed versions by
slot. Clean will remove all but the most recently installed
version in each slot. Clean should not remove unslotted pack-
ages. Note: Most recently installed means most recent, not
highest version.

Run package specific actions needed to be executed after the
emerge process has completed. This usually entails configura-
tion file setup or other similar setups that the user may wish
to run.

Cleans the system by removing packages that are not associated
with explicitly merged packages. Depclean works by creating the
full dependency tree from the system list and the world file,
then comparing it to installed packages. Packages installed, but
not associated with an explicit merge are listed as candidates
for unmerging. Inexperienced users are advised to use --pretend
with this option in order to see a preview of which packages
will be uninstalled. WARNING:: Removing some packages may cause
packages which link to the removed package to stop working and
complain about missing libraries.. Rebuild the complaining pack-
age to fix this issue. Also see --with-bdeps for behavior with
respect to build time dependencies that are not strictly
required. Depclean serves as a dependency aware version of
--unmerge. When given one or more atoms, it will unmerge matched
packages that have no reverse dependencies. Use --depclean
together with --verbose to show reverse dependencies.

--help (-h)
Displays help information for emerge. Adding one of the addi-
tional arguments listed above will give you more specific help
information on that subject. The internal emerge help documen-
tation is updated more frequently than this man page; check it
out if you are having problems that this man page does not help

--info Produces a list of information to include in bug reports which
aids the developers when fixing the reported problem. Please
include this information when submitting a bug report.. Expanded
output can be obtained with the --verbose option.

Transfers metadata cache from ${PORTDIR}/metadata/cache/ to
/var/cache/edb/dep/ as is normally done on the tail end of an
rsync update using emerge --sync. This process populates the
cache database that portage uses for pre-parsed lookups of pack-
age data. It does not populate cache for the overlays listed in
PORTDIR_OVERLAY. In order to generate cache for overlays, use

--prune (-P)
WARNING:: This action can remove important packages!! Removes all
but the highest installed version of a package from your system.
This action doesn't verify the possible binary compatibility
between versions and can thus remove essential dependencies from
your system. Use --prune together with --verbose to show reverse
dependencies or with --nodeps to ignore all dependencies.

Causes portage to check and update the dependency cache of all
ebuilds in the portage tree. The cache is used to speed up
searches and the building of dependency trees. This command is
not recommended for rsync users as rsync updates the cache using
server-side caches. If you do not know the differences between
a 'rsync user' and some other user, then you are a 'rsync user'
:). Rsync users should simply run emerge --sync to regenerate
the cache. After a portage update, rsync users may find it con-
venient to run emerge --metadata to rebuild the cache as portage
does at the end of a sync operation.

Resumes the most recent merge list that has been aborted due to
an error. Please note that this operation will only return an
error on failure. If there is nothing for portage to do, then
portage will exit with a message and a success condition. A
resume list will persist until it has been completed in entirety
or until another aborted merge list replaces it. The resume
history is capable of storing two merge lists. After one resume
list completes, it is possible to invoke --resume once again in
order to resume an older list.

--search (-s)
Searches for matches of the supplied string in the portage tree.
By default emerge uses a case-insensitive simple search, but you
can enable a regular expression search by prefixing the search
string with %. For example, emerge --search ""%%^^kde"" searches
for any package whose name starts with "kde"; emerge --search
""%%gcc$$"" searches for any package that ends with "gcc"; emerge
--search ""office"" searches for any package that contains the
word "office". If you want to include the category into the
search string, prepend an @: emerge --search ""%%@@^^dev-java..**jdk"".
If you want to search the package descriptions as well, use the
--searchdesc action.

--searchdesc (-S)
Matches the search string against the description field as well
as the package name. Take caution as the descriptions are also
matched as regular expressions.

--sync Initiates a portage tree update with one of the
mirrors. Note that any changes you have made to the portage
tree will be erased. Except for special circumstances, this
uses rsync to do the update. See make..conf(5)'s description of
PORTDIR_OVERLAY for a method to avoid deletions.

--unmerge (-C)
WARNING:: This action can remove important packages!! Removes all
matching packages. This does no checking of dependencies, so it
may remove packages necessary for the proper operation of your
system. Its arguments can be atoms or ebuilds. For a dependency
aware version of --unmerge, use --depclean or --prune.

--update (-u)
Updates packages to the best version available, which may not
always be the highest version number due to masking for testing
and development. This will also update direct dependencies
which may not be what you want. Package atoms specified on the
command line are greedy, meaning that unspecific atoms may match
multiple installed versions of slotted packages.

--version (-V)
Displays the version number of emerge.

When displaying USE and other flag output, combines the enabled
and disabled lists into one list and sorts the whole list alpha-

--ask (-a)
Before performing the action, display what will take place
(server info for --sync, --pretend output for merge, and so
forth), then ask whether to proceed with the action or abort.
Using --ask is more efficient than using --pretend and then exe-
cuting the same command without --pretend, as dependencies will
only need to be calculated once. WARNING:: If the ""Enter"" key is
pressed at the prompt ((with no other input)), it is interpreted
as acceptance of the first choice.. Note that the input buffer
is not cleared prior to the prompt, so an accidental press of
the ""Enter"" key at any time prior to the prompt will be inter-
preted as a choice!!

--buildpkg (-b)
Tells emerge to build binary packages for all ebuilds processed
in addition to actually merging the packages. Useful for main-
tainers or if you administrate multiple Gentoo Linux systems
(build once, emerge tbz2s everywhere) as well as disaster recov-
ery. The package will be created in the ${PKGDIR}/All directory.
An alternative for already-merged packages is to use quickpkg(1)
which creates a tbz2 from the live filesystem.

--buildpkgonly (-B)
Creates binary packages for all ebuilds processed without actu-
ally merging the packages. This comes with the caveat that all
build-time dependencies must already be emerged on the system.

--changelog (-l)
Use this in conjunction with the --pretend option. This will
show the ChangeLog entries for all the packages that will be

--color << y || n >>
Enable or disable color output. This option will override
NOCOLOR (see make..conf(5)) and may also be used to force color
output when stdout is not a tty (by default, color is disabled
unless stdout is a tty).

Used alongside --pretend to cause the package name, new version,
and old version to be displayed in an aligned format for easy

Set the PORTAGE_CONFIGROOT environment variable.

--debug (-d)
Tells emerge to run the emerge command in --debug mode. In this
mode the bash build environment will run with the -x option,
causing it to output verbose debugging information to stdout.
This also enables a plethora of other output (mostly dependency
resolution messages).

--deep (-D)
This flag forces emerge to consider the entire dependency tree
of packages, instead of checking only the immediate dependencies
of the packages. As an example, this catches updates in
libraries that are not directly listed in the dependencies of a
package. Also see --with-bdeps for behavior with respect to
build time dependencies that are not strictly required.

--emptytree (-e)
Reinstalls all world packages and their dependencies to the cur-
rent USE specifications while differing from the installed set
of packages as little as possible. You should run with --pre-
tend first to make sure the result is what you expect.

--fetchonly (-f)
Instead of doing any package building, just perform fetches for
all packages (fetch things from SRC_URI based upon USE setting).

--fetch-all-uri (-F)
Instead of doing any package building, just perform fetches for
all packages (fetch everything in SRC_URI irregardless of USE

--getbinpkg (-g)
Using the server and location defined in PORTAGE_BINHOST (see
make..conf(5)), portage will download the information from each
binary package found and it will use that information to help
build the dependency list. This option implies -k. (Use -gK
for binary-only merging.)

--getbinpkgonly (-G)
This option is identical to -g, as above, except it will not use
ANY information from the local machine. All binaries will be
downloaded from the remote server without consulting packages
existing in the local packages directory.

Causes EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS (see make..conf(5)) to be ignored.

--newuse (-N)
Tells emerge to include installed packages where USE flags have
changed since compilation. USE flag changes include:

A USE flag was added to a package. A USE flag was removed from
a package. A USE flag was turned on for a package. A USE flag
was turned off for a package.

USE flags may be toggled by your profile as well as your USE and
package.use settings.

Causes portage to disregard merge records indicating that a con-
fig file inside of a CONFIG_PROTECT directory has been merged
already. Portage will normally merge those files only once to
prevent the user from dealing with the same config multiple
times. This flag will cause the file to always be merged.

--nodeps (-O)
Merges specified packages without merging any dependencies.
Note that the build may fail if the dependencies aren't satis-

--noreplace (-n)
Skips the packages specified on the command-line that have
already been installed. Without this option, any packages,
ebuilds, or deps you specify on the command-line will cause
Portage to remerge the package, even if it is already installed.
Note that Portage will not remerge dependencies by default.

Disables the spinner for the session. The spinner is active
when the terminal device is determined to be a TTY. This flag
disables it regardless.

--oneshot (-1)
Emerge as normal, but do not add the packages to the world file
for later updating.

--onlydeps (-o)
Only merge (or pretend to merge) the dependencies of the pack-
ages specified, not the packages themselves.

--pretend (-p)
Instead of actually performing the merge, simply display what
*would* have been installed if --pretend weren't used. Using
--pretend is strongly recommended before installing an unfamil-
iar package. In the printout:

N = new (not yet installed)
S = new SLOT installation (side-by-side versions)
U = updating (to another version)
D = downgrading (best version seems lower)
R = replacing (remerging same version))
F = fetch restricted (must be manually downloaded)
f = fetch restricted (already downloaded)
B = blocked by an already installed package

--quiet (-q)
Results may vary, but the general outcome is a reduced or con-
densed output from portage's displays.

--reinstall changed-use
Tells emerge to include installed packages where USE flags have
changed since installation. Unlike --newuse, this option does
not trigger reinstallation when flags that the user has not
enabled are added or removed.

This option is only valid when used with --resume. It removes
the first package in the resume list so that a merge may con-
tinue in the presence of an uncorrectable or inconsequential
error. This should only be used in cases where skipping the
package will not result in failed dependencies.

--tree (-t)
Shows the dependency tree for the given target by indenting
dependencies. This is only really useful in combination with
--emptytree or --update and --deep.

--usepkg (-k)
Tells emerge to use binary packages (from $PKGDIR) if they are
available, thus possibly avoiding some time-consuming compiles.
This option is useful for CD installs; you can export
PKGDIR=/mnt/cdrom/packages and then use this option to have
emerge "pull" binary packages from the CD in order to satisfy

--usepkgonly (-K)
Tells emerge to only use binary packages (from $PKGDIR). All
the binary packages must be available at the time of dependency
calculation or emerge will simply abort. Portage does not use
$PORTDIR when calculating dependency information so all masking
information is ignored.

--verbose (-v)
Tell emerge to run in verbose mode. Currently this flag causes
emerge to print out GNU info errors, if any, and to show the USE
flags that will be used for each package when pretending. The
following symbols are affixed to USE flags in order to indicate
their status:

- prefix = not enabled (either disabled or removed)
* suffix = transition to or from the enabled state
% suffix = newly added or removed
() circumfix = forced, masked, or removed

--with-bdeps << y || n >>
In dependency calculations, pull in build time dependencies that
are not strictly required. This defaults to 'n' for installa-
tion actions and 'y' for the --depclean action. This setting
can be added to EMERGE_DEFAULT_OPTS (see make.conf(5)) and later
overridden via the command line.

ROOT = [path]
Use ROOT to specify the target root filesystem to be used for
merging packages or ebuilds. This variable can be set in
make..conf(5) when PORTAGE_CONFIGROOT has a value other than /.
Defaults to /.

Use PORTAGE_CONFIGROOT to specify the location for various
portage configuration files (see FILES for a detailed list of
configuration files). This variable can be set via the --con-
fig-root option.
Defaults to /.

When utilizing emerge with the --pretend and --verbose flags, the out-
put may be a little hard to understand at first. This section explains
the abbreviations.

[blocks B ] app-text//dos2unix ((from pkg app-text//hd2u-0..8..0))
Dos2unix is Blocking hd2u from being emerged. Blockers are
defined when two packages will clobber each others files, or
otherwise cause some form of breakage in your system. However,
blockers usually do not need to be simultaneously emerged
because they usually provide the same functionality.

[ebuild N ] app-games//qstat-25c
Qstat is New to your system, and will be emerged for the first

[ebuild NS ] dev-libs//glib-2..4..7
You already have a version of glib installed, but a 'new' ver-
sion in a different SLOT is available.

[ebuild R ] sys-apps//sed-4..0..5
Sed 4.0.5 has already been emerged, but if you run the command,
then portage will Re-emerge the specified package (sed in this

[ebuild F ] media-video//realplayer-8-r6
The realplayer package requires that you Fetch the sources manu-
ally. When you attempt to emerge the package, if the sources
are not found, then portage will halt and you will be provided
with instructions on how to download the required files.

[ebuild f ] media-video//realplayer-8-r6
The realplayer package's files are already downloaded.

[ebuild U ] net-fs//samba-2..2..8_pre1 [2..2..7a]
Samba 2.2.7a has already been emerged and can be Updated to ver-
sion 2.2.8_pre1.

[ebuild UD] media-libs//libgd-1..8..4 [2..0..11]
Libgd 2.0.11 is already emerged, but if you run the command,
then portage will Downgrade to version 1.8.4 for you.
This may occur if a newer version of a package has been masked
because it is broken or it creates a security risk on your sys-
tem and a fix has not been released yet.
Another reason this may occur is if a package you are trying to
emerge requires an older version of a package in order to emerge
successfully. In this case, libgd 2.x is incompatible with
libgd 1.x. This means that packages that were created with
libgd 1.x will not compile with 2.x and must downgrade libgd
first before they can emerge.

[ebuild U ] sys-devel//distcc-2..16 [2..13-r1] USE=""ipv6** -gtk -qt%%""
Here we see that the make.conf variable USE affects how this
package is built. In this example, ipv6 optional support is
enabled and both gtk and qt support are disabled. The asterisk
following ipv6 indicates that ipv6 support was disabled the last
time this packages was installed. The percent sign following qt
indicates that the qt option has been added to the package since
it was last installed. For information about all USE symbols,
see the --verbose option documentation above.
**Note:: Flags that haven't changed since the last install are
only displayed when you use the --pretend and --verbose options.
Using the --quiet option will prevent all information from being

You should almost always precede any package install or update attempt
with a --pretend install or update. This lets you see how much will be
done, and shows you any blocking packages that you will have to rec-
tify. This goes doubly so for the system and world sets, which can
update a large number of packages if the portage tree has been particu-
larly active.

You also want to typically use --update, which ignores packages that
are already fully updated but updates those that are not.

When you install a package with uninstalled dependencies and do not
explicitly state those dependencies in the list of parameters, they
will not be added to the world file. If you want them to be detected
for world updates, make sure to explicitly list them as parameters to

USE variables may be specified on the command line to override those
specified in the default locations, letting you avoid using some depen-
dencies you may not want to have. USE flags specified on the command
line are NOT remembered. For example, env USE=""-X -gnome"" emerge mc
will emerge mc with those USE settings (on Bourne-compatible shells you
may omit the env part). If you want those USE settings to be more per-
manent, you can put them in /etc/portage/package.use instead.

If emerge --update system or emerge --update world fails with an error
message, it may be that an ebuild uses some newer feature not present
in this version of emerge. You can use emerge --update portage to
upgrade to the lastest version, which should support any necessary new

NOTE: Please use caution when using development packages. Problems and
bugs resulting from misusing masked packages drains Gentoo developer
time. Please be sure you are capable of handling any problems that may

Masks in portage have many uses: they allow a testing period where the
packages can be used in live machines; they prevent the use of a pack-
age when it will fail; and they mask existing packages that are broken
or could pose a security risk. Read below to find out how to unmask in
various cases. Also note that if you give emerge an ebuild, then all
forms of masking will be ignored and emerge will attempt to emerge the

The package..mask file primarily blocks the use of packages that
cause problems or are known to have issues on different systems.
It resides in /usr/portage/profiles.

CHOST The variable in make..conf(5) is used to mask binary packages
that have been built with a different setting. The only way to
unmask such a binary package is to change the environment vari-
able so that it exactly matches that of the binary package.

EAPI The EAPI variable in an ebuild(5) file is used to mask packages
that are not supported by the current version of portage. Pack-
ages masked by EAPI can only be installed after portage has been

The KEYWORDS variable in an ebuild file is also used for masking
a package still in testing. There are architecture-specific
keywords for each package that let portage know which systems
are compatible with the package. Packages which compile on an
architecture, but have not been proven to be "stable", are
masked with a tilde (~~) in front of the architecture name.
emerge examines the ACCEPT_KEYWORDS environment variable to
allow or disallow the emerging of a package masked by KEYWORDS.
To inform emerge that it should build these 'testing' versions
of packages, you should update your /etc/portage/package.key-
words file to list the packages you want the 'testing' version.
See portage(5) for more information.

Portage has a special feature called "config file protection". The pur-
pose of this feature is to prevent new package installs from clobbering
existing configuration files. By default, config file protection is
turned on for /etc and the KDE configuration dirs; more may be added in
the future.

When Portage installs a file into a protected directory tree like /etc,
any existing files will not be overwritten. If a file of the same name
already exists, Portage will change the name of the to-be-installed
file from 'foo' to '._cfg0000_foo'. If '._cfg0000_foo' already exists,
this name becomes '._cfg0001_foo', etc. In this way, existing files are
not overwritten, allowing the administrator to manually merge the new
config files and avoid any unexpected changes.

In addition to protecting overwritten files, Portage will not delete
any files from a protected directory when a package is unmerged. While
this may be a little bit untidy, it does prevent potentially valuable
config files from being deleted, which is of paramount importance.

Protected directories are set using the CONFIG_PROTECT variable, nor-
mally defined in /etc/make.globals. Directory exceptions to the CON-
FIG_PROTECTed directories can be specified using the CONFIG_PRO-
TECT_MASK variable. To find files that need to be updated in /etc, type
find //etc -iname ''.._cfg????????_**''.

You can disable this feature by setting CONFIG_PROTECT="-*" in
/etc/make.conf. Then, Portage will mercilessly auto-update your config
files. Alternatively, you can leave Config File Protection on but tell
Portage that it can overwrite files in certain specific /etc subdirec-
tories. For example, if you wanted Portage to automatically update your
rc scripts and your wget configuration, but didn't want any other
changes made without your explicit approval, you'd add this to

CONFIG_PROTECT_MASK="/etc/wget /etc/rc.d"

Tools such as dispatch-conf, cfg-update, and etc-update are also avail-
able to aid in the merging of these files. They provide interactive
merging and can auto-merge trivial changes.

Please report any bugs you encounter through our website:


Please include the output of emerge --info when you submit your bug

Daniel Robbins <>
Geert Bevin <>
Achim Gottinger <>
Nicholas Jones <>
Phil Bordelon <>
Mike Frysinger <>
Marius Mauch <>

Here is a common list of files you will probably be interested in. For
a complete listing, please refer to the portage(5) man page.

Contains a list of all user-specified packages. You can safely
edit this file, adding packages that you want to be considered
in world set updates and removing those that you do not want to
be considered.

Contains variables for the build process, overriding those in

Contains variables customizing colors.

Contains settings to handle automatic updates/backups of config-
uration files.

Contains profile-specific variables for the build process. Do
not edit this file.

Contains a list of packages which, if installed, cause the
respective USE flag to be enabled by default. Do not edit this

Contains the master list of USE flags with descriptions of their
functions. Do not edit this file.

Contains a list of default packages used to resolve virtual
dependencies. Do not edit this file.

Contains a list of packages used for the base system. The sys-
tem and world sets consult this file. Do not edit this file.

Contains the default variables for the build process. Do not
edit this file.

emerge --help, quickpkg(1), ebuild(1), ebuild(5), make..conf(5),, portage(5)

A number of helper applications reside in /usr/lib/portage/bin.

The app-portage//gentoolkit package contains useful scripts such as
equery (a package query tool).

Portage 2.1.3 Jun 2007 EMERGE(1)